How to analyse Kano survey results

The quickest way to assess the questionnaires is to map them to the following table:

Dysfunctional question
Like Expect Neutral Live with Dislike
Functional question Like Q D D D N
Expect R I I I M
Neutral R I I I M
Live with R I I I M
Dislike R R R R Q

M – Must Be
N – Normal Needs
D – Delight
R – Reverse, i.e. wrong features, that would make customer feel worse
Q – Questionable, i.e. customer’s answers are inconsistent
I – Indifferent, i.e. customer doesn’t really care about the feature

For example, if a customer tells that he can live with a word processor with a spellchecker, but would dislike if a word processor didn’t have a spellchecker, than a spellchecker is a Must Be feature for the word processor.

After having combined the answers to the functional and dysfunctional question in the evaluation table, the results of the individual product criteria are listed in the table of results which shows the overall distribution of the requirement categories.


In case of moot points concerning some features, evaluation rule should be considered:

M > N > D > I

If the individual product requirements cannot be unambiguously assigned to the various categories, the evaluation rule “M>N>D>I” is very useful. When making decisions about product developments, primarily those features have to be taken into consideration which have the greatest influence on the perceived product quality. First those requirements have to be fulfilled which cause dissatisfaction if not met. When deciding which attractive requirements should be satisfied, the decisive factor is how important they are for the customer. This can be determined by using “self-stated-importance” in the questionnaire. If those two or three attractive requirements are fulfilled which are regarded as the most important ones per customer segment, the result is a package of product features which cannot be beaten.